During the past decades, exosomes have provided great application potentials to be important mediators of intercellular communication. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly clear that we can design exosome-based nanoplatforms as next-generation delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss engineering exosomes as drug delivery systems, ranging from their biogenesis, cell membrane vectors, therapeutic agent packaging, surface engineering to their extensive nanomedical applications, review the use of these exosomes as emerging therapeutic applications, and reflect on future challenges for clinical translation.
(Am J Transl Med 2022. 6:1-10).